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Psalms 22, 23 & 24

These three Psalms (22, 23, 24) relate to the sufferings and the glory of "the Man Christ Jesus".
  • 22 = The Good Shepherd on Earth, in Death (John 10. 11).

  • 23 = The Great Shepherd, in Heaven, by Resurrection (Heb. 13. 20).

  • 24 = The Chief Shepherd, coming in His Glory to earth and Zion, again (1Peter 5. 4.)

    Psalm 22 is Christ as the sin offering ; Psalm 40, as the burnt offering ; Psalm 69, as the trespass offering .

Psalm 22

To the chief Musician upon Aijeleth Shahar,
A Psalm of David.

Title. A Psalm. See Ap. 65. XVII . of David = relating to or concerning David's Son and David's Lord (Matt. 22. 41-45). "The root and the offspring of David" (Rev. 22. 16). David "being a prophet and knowing . . . spake of".


Italics in KJV text indicate words inserted by the original (KJV) translators.

TCB Side-Notes:

Here, italics are for Hebrew-Greek words and/or emphasis.

1 °My God, my God, why hast Thou forsaken me? why art Thou so far from helping me, and from the words of my °roaring?

1 °My GOD, my GOD. Heb. my El (Ap. 4. IV). God as Almighty in relation to the creature ; not Jehovah (Ap. 4. II), in covenant relation with His servant. Quoted in Matt. 27. 46. Mark 15. 34. The Psalm is Christ's prayer and plea on the Cross. It begins with "My God, my God" (Matt. 27. 46. Mark 15. 34), and it ends with "It is finished". See note on v. 31, and cp. John 19. 30. If the Lord uttered the whole of this Psalm on the cross, the dying malefactor must have "heard", and believed (Rom. 10. 17). Cp. Luke 23. 32, 40-42. The "kingdom" had been referred to by Christ in Ps. 22. 22-30. See note on "roaring", below. The Fig. Epizeuxis (Ap. 6) is used for solemn emphasis.
°roaring lamentation. Heb. sha'ag = spoken of a lion, and of thunder.

2 O my °God, I cry in the daytime, but Thou °hearest not; and in the night season, and am not silent.

2 °God. Heb. Elohim. Ap. 4. I.
°hearest not = answerest not.

3 °But Thou art holy, O Thou that °inhabitest the praises of Israel.

3 °But Thou. And yet Thou. Cp. vv. 9 and 19. Note the emphasis.holy. See note on Ex. 3. 5.
°Here = the Divine attribute.
°inhabitest the praises. "Praises" put by Fig. Metonymy (of Adjunct), Ap. 6, for the Sanctuary, where the praises were offered. The various readings and renderings arise from trying to make sense, not seeing this Figure of speech. Cp. 80. 1 ; 99. 1.

4 Our fathers °trusted in Thee: they trusted, and Thou didst deliver them.

4 °trusted = confided. Heb. batah. See Ap. 69. i.

5 They cried unto Thee, and were delivered: they trusted in Thee, and were not confounded.


6 But I am a °worm, and no °man; a reproach of °men, and °despised of the people.

6 °worm. Heb. tola`, not the ordinary word for "worm", but the crimson coccus from which the scarlet dye was obtained. Hence rendered "scarlet" in Ex. 25. 4 ; 26. 1, &c. See note on Josh. 2. 18, and Ex. 12. 13. Jacob, so called Isa. 41. 14. Christ thus took the lowest place of His People.
°man. Heb. 'ish. Ap. 14. II.
°men. Heb. 'adam. Ap. 14. I.
°despised. Cp. Isa. 53. 3.

7 °All they that see me laugh me to scorn: they °shoot out the lip, they shake the head, saying,

7 °All. Fig. Synecdoche (of Genus), Ap. 6, put for most or greater part. (Some believed.)
°shoot out = open..

8 °He °trusted on °the LORD that he would deliver him: let him deliver him, seeing he delighted in him.

8 °He, &c. Fig. Eironeia (Irony). Ap. 6. Quoted in Matt. 27. 43. Mark 15. 29. Luke 23. 35.
°trusted, &c. = devolved all on Jehovah. Heb. galal. See Ap. 69. V.
°the LORD. Heb. Jehovah. Ap. 4. II.

9 But Thou art he that took me out of the womb: Thou didst °make me °hope when I was upon my mother's breasts.

9 °make = cause.
°hope = trust, or confide. Heb. batah. Ap. 69. I.

10 I was cast upon Thee from the womb: Thou art my God from my mother's belly.


11 Be not far from me; for trouble is near; for there is °none to help.

11 °none to help. Cp. 69. 20. He was alone in this wondrous work.

12 Many bulls have compassed me: strong bulls of Bashan have beset me round.
13 They gaped upon me with their mouths, as a ravening and a roaring lion.


14 I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint: my heart is like wax; it is melted °in the midst of my bowels.

14 °in the midst of my bowels = within me.

15 My strength is °dried up like a potsherd; and my tongue cleaveth to my jaws; and Thou hast brought me into the dust of death.

15 °dried up. Cp. John 19. 28.

16 For °dogs have compassed me: the °assembly of the °wicked have inclosed me: °they pierced my hands and my feet.

16 °dogs. Fig. Hypocatastasis. Ap. 6. "Enemies" being implied (not expressed).
°assembly = congregation : in civic aspect.
°wicked = breakers up. Heb. ra`a`. Ap. 44. viii.
°They pierced, &c. = "As a lion [they break up] my hands and feet". The Heb. text reads k'aru, and alter the vowel points, making it read "they pierced". It is better to translate the Heb. text literally, and supply the Ellipsis of the verb from Isa. 38. 13, "they break up". The meaning is exactly the same, and agrees with John 19. 37.

17 I may °tell all my bones: they °look and stare upon me.

17 °tell = count. The whole description applies to death by crucificxion only.
°look and stare = look for and see. In this idiom the former verb includes the feeling implied by the context. Cp. 1Sam. 17. 42.

18 They °part my garments among them, and cast lots upon my vesture.

18 °part, &c. Quoted in Matt. 27. 35. Mark 15. 24. Luke 23. 34. John 19. 24.

19 But be not Thou far from me, O °LORD*: O my strength, haste Thee to help me.

19 °LORD*. One of the 134 emendations of the Sopherim (Ap. 32) by which "Jehovah" of the primitive text was changed to "Adonai".

20 Deliver my °soul from the sword; my °darling from the °power of the dog.

20 °soul. Heb. nephesh. Ap. 13.
°darling = only one. Heb. yahid. See note on Deut.6.4.= my one own priceless possesion; put by Fig. metonymy (of Subject), Ap. 6, for "my life" answering to "my soul" in the preceding line. Cp psuche (John12.27).
°power Heb. hand or paw. Put by Fig. Metonymy (of Cause),Ap.6,for the power exercised by it.

21 Save me from the °lion's mouth: °for Thou hast °heard me °from the horns of the unicorns.

21 °lion's. See note on "They pierced" (v. 16)
°For = Yea.
°heard me = answered me. Cp. v. 2. Supply Ellipsis, "[and delivered me]".
°from the horns, &c. This clause may be joined on to the end of the preceding line. "Thou hast heard me" may be read on to v. 22 : "I will declare".
unicorns = the bulls of v. 12.

22 °I will declare °Thy Name unto my °brethren:
In the midst of the °congregation will I praise Thee.

22 °I will declare. These words are Christ's in resurrection.
°Thy Name = Thee (emphatic). Put by Fig. Metonymy (of Adjunct), Ap. 6, for the Person and all His attributes. See note on Ps. 20. 1.
°brethren. Cp. John 20. 17.
°congregation = assembly : in its military aspect.

23 °Ye that fear °the LORD, praise him; all ye the seed of °Jacob, glorify him; and °fear him, all ye the seed of °Israel.

23 °Ye : i.e. the Gentiles of 18. 49 ; 117. 1. Deut. 32. 43. Isa. 11. 1, 10. [word as in third line.]
°that fear = that stand we in awe. Heb. gur. Not the same
°Jacob . . . Israel. See notes on Gen. 32. 28 ; 43. 6 ; 45. 26, 28.
°fear = revere.Referring to Israel. Heb. yare. Not the same word as in first line and v. 25.

24 For he hath not despised nor abhorred °the affliction of °the afflicted; neither hath he hid his face from him; but when he cried unto him, he heard.

24 °the affliction = the humiliation.
°the afflicted = the patient One.

25 My praise shall be of Thee in the great congregation: I will pay my vows before them that fear Him.


26 The °meek shall eat and be satisfied: they shall praise the LORD that seek him: your heart shall live for ever.

26 °meek = the patient or wronged ones.

27 All °the ends of the °world shall remember and turn unto the LORD: and all the kindreds of the nations shall worship before Thee.

27 °the ends, &c. Put by Fig. Metonymy (of Subject), Ap. 6, for the people dwelling in the farthest regions.
°world = earth. Heb. erez.

28 °For the kingdom is the LORD'S: and He is the Governor among the nations.

28 °For, &c. Cp. Matt. 6. 13.

29 °All they that be fat upon earth shall eat and worship: all they that go down to the dust °shall bow before him: °and none can keep alive his own °soul.

29 °All they that be fat = All the great ones.
°shall bow. Cp. Phil. 2. 9-11, and refs. there.
°And none can = Even He cannot : ref. to Matt. 27. 42. Cp. Acts 1. 8.
°soul. Heb. nephesh. Ap. 13.

30 °A seed shall serve him; it shall be °accounted to the LORD* °for a generation.

30 °A seed. Sept. and Vulg. read "My seed". Cp. Isa. 53. 10.
°accounted to = recounted of.
°for a generation = unto a generation that shall come (reading the first part of v. 31 with the end of v. 30).

31 They shall come, and °shall declare his righteousness unto a people °that shall be born,
°That °He hath done this.

31 °shall declare His righteousness = His righteousness shall be declared.
°that shall be born. Referring to the new birth as declared by Christ to Nicodemus (John 3. 3-7). Cp. Ezek. 36. 25-27.
°That = For. Corresponding with "for", vv. 24 and 28.
°He hath done this = It is finished. Cp. John 19. 30. Thus concluding the Psalm. Cp. the beginning. Heb. `asah, to accomplish or finish, as in 2Chron. 4. 11.
Not given to the chief Musician ; the Psalm being for private study, and not public worship.

Psalm 23

A Psalm of David.


Italics in KJV text indicate words inserted by the original (KJV) translators.

TCB Side-Notes:

Here, italics are for Hebrew-Greek words and/or emphasis.

1 °The LORD is my shepherd; I shall °not want.

1 The LORD. Heb. Jehovah.
°The LORD . . . my shepherd. One of the Jehovah Titles. See Ap. 4. II, "JEHOVAH-RO`i". Figs. Metaphor and Anthropopatheia. Ap. 6.
°not want. Because "Jehovah will provide", JEHOVAH-JIREH. See Ap. 4. II.

2 He °maketh me to °lie down in °green pastures:
He °leadeth me beside the °still waters.

2 °maketh me = causeth me (implying continuance).
°lie down. We need making so as to feed, and not trample the pastures down.
°green pastures = choice pastures. Heb. "pastures of tender grass".
°leadeth me = causeth me to rest. Heb. nahal, to lead flocks. °still waters. Heb. "waters of rests", JEHOVAH-SHALOM. Ap. 4. II.

3 He °restoreth my °soul:
He °leadeth me in the °paths of righteousness for His °name's sake.
°3 restoreth = bringeth back, as in Ps. 19. 8, JEHOVAH-ROPHEKA. Ap. 4. II.
°soul = Heb. /nephesh. Ap. 13.
°leadeth. Heb. nahah, to guide, conduct.
°paths of righteousness = righteous paths. JEHOVAH-ZIDK_EN_U.
Ap. 4. II. °name's = own. See note on 20. 1.

4 °Yea, though I walk °through the °valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no °evil: for °Thou. art with me; thy °rod and thy staff they °comfort me.

4 °Yea = Moreover.
°through. Not into ; but "through", and out of it, into resurrection life.
°valley, &c. = a valley of deep shade : may include (but not necessarily) death's dark valley.
°evil. Heb. ra`a`. Ap. 44. viii.
°Thou art with me. JEHOVAH-SHAMMAH. Ap. 4. II.
°rod and . . . staff = club and . . . crook. The only two things carried by the shepherd ; the former for defence, the latter for help. The club for the sheep's enemies, the crook for the sheep's defence. A lesson for pastors to-day.
°comfort = gently lead. Same word as "leadeth" in v. 2.

5 Thou °preparest a °table before me in the presence of mine °enemies: thou °anointest my head with oil;
my °cup °runneth over.

5 °preparest = settest in order.
°table. Put by Fig. Metonymy (of Subject), Ap. 6, for what is on it. So that I may feast while He fights. JEHOVAH-NISSI. Ap. 4. II. The figure of the sheep is continued : for the "table" of v.5 answers to the "pastures" of v. 2.
°enemies = adversaries. °anointest. JEHOVAH-MEKADDISHKEM. Ap. 4. II. Still referring to the sheep and the Shepherd's care : for the figure of the "sheep" is carried right through the Psalm.
°cup : i.e. the Shepherd's cup of water for the sheep.
°runneth over. See note on 73. 10.

6 Surely goodness and °mercy shall °follow me all the days of my life: and I will dwell in the house of the LORD °for ever.

6 °mercy = lovingkindness, or grace. [for future.]
°follow = follow after, or closely. In Heb. present put
°for ever = evermore. Heb. "to length of days".

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Psalm 24

(repeated alternation)
C1|    1,2. Right to the earth.
      D1|      3. Question. Who ...?
         &n bsp;    E1| &nb sp;      4-6. Answer Selah.
C2|    7.His Own Right.       |
      D2|      8-. Question. Who ...?       | Right to
         &n bsp;    E2| &nb sp;      -8. Answer       |millenial
C3|    9.His Right with His people.       |Kingdom
      D3|      10-. Question. Who ...?       |
         &n bsp;    E3| &nb sp;      -10. Answer

Title. A Psalm. (See Ap. 65. XVII.)of David

concerning David and the true David. Relates to the entrance of the Ark into Zion (see Ap. 68), typifying the coming of glory of Heb. 1. 6. Cp. 2Sam. 6. 2. 1Chron. 15. 25. Ps. 68 relates to the setting out of the procession. Ps. 24 to the entrance up to Zion. Ps. 87 to the joy of the entrance with dancings and shoutings. Ps. 105, for subsequent celebrations of the event.


Italics in KJV text indicate words inserted by the original (KJV) translators.

TCB Side-Notes:

Here, italics are for Hebrew-Greek words and/or emphasis.

24:1 The earth is °the LORD'S, and °the fulness thereof;
The °world, and they that dwell therein.

1°The earth. Heb. eretz, the earth (as created). °the LORD'S. Heb. Jehovah's. Ap. 4. II. The emphasis is on Jehovah = "JEHOVAH'S is the earth".
°the fulness = all that fills it. Quoted in 1Cor. 10. 26.
°world. Heb. tebel, the world (as inhabited).

24:2 For He hath °founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the floods.

2°founded, &c. Cp. 2Pet. 3. 5. Ps. 136. 6. Gen. 1. 1.

24:3 Who shall ascend into °the hill of the LORD?
°Or who shall stand in His °holy place?

3 °the hill = the mountain (of Zion, south of Moriah). Seven times so called : here, and Gen. 22. 14. Num. 10. 33. Isa. 2. 3 ; 30. 29. Mic. 4. 2. Zech. 8. 3. See Ap. 68.
°Or. The A.V., 1611, read "And". Changed in 1769 to "Or".
°stand = rise up. Cp. 1. 5.
°holy. See note on Ex. 3. 5.

24:4 He that hath °clean hands, and a pure heart; who hath not lifted up his °soul unto vanity, nor sworn deceitfully.

4 °clean. Cp. Ps. 15 and Ex. 20. 13-16.
°soul. Heb. nephesh. Ap. 13.

24:5 He shall receive the blessing from the LORD, °and °righteousness from the °God of his salvation.

5 °And = Even.
°righteousness. The gift received from Jehovah.
°God. Heb. Elohim. Ap. 4. I.

24:6 °This is the °generation of them that seek Him, that seek Thy face, °O °Jacob. °Selah.

6 °This = Such : i.e. not a "new cart" (2Sam. 6. 3), but the Kohathites. See Num. 7. 9 ; 4. 2, 15. Deut. 10. 8 ; 31. 9, &c. ; and cp. 2Sam. 6. 13. 1Chron. 15. 2.
°generation = class of circle. Here, the Kohathites. Cp. 22. 30.
°O Jacob. Sept. and Syr. read "O God of Jacob".
°Jacob. See notes on Gen. 32. 28 ; 43. 6 ; 45. 26, 28.
°Selah. Connecting the first triad with the Ark of Jehovah : transferring our thoughts from the general claim to the particular making of the claim to the particular making of the claim by this event. See note on v. 10, and Ap. 66. II.

24:7 Lift up your heads, O ye gates; and be ye lift up, ye °everlasting doors; and the °King of Glory shall come in.

7 °everlasting doors = age-binding entrances. The tabernacle (or tent) of David, on Mount Zion, was not ancient. This looks forward to the fulfillment of prophecy in times yet to come.
°King of glory = Glorious king. The repeated question points us both to 22. 6 ("a worm, and no man") and to 23. 1 (The Shepherd).

24:8 Who is this King of Glory?
The LORD strong and mighty,
The LORD mighty in battle.


24:9 Lift up your heads, O ye gates; even lift them up, ye everlasting doors; and the King of Glory shall come in.


24:10 °Who is
this King of Glory? °The LORD of Hosts,
He is the King of Glory. °Selah.

10 °Who = Who then, is He, this glorious King?
°The LORD of hosts. See note on first occurence (1Sam. 1. 3), and Structure above.
°Selah. Connecting Ps. 25 with Ps. 24. Ps. 24 referring to Zion, the new place of worship, and Ps. 25 referring to the worship itself, which was to be and could henceforward be offered there. Ps. 24 corresponds with 1Chron. 15, and Ps. 25 with 1Chron. 16, which togther give a full description of the worship. Ps. 25 is further emphasised by having an Acrostic Psalm, in which the worthiness of Jehovah and the unworthiness of His worshippers stand out in vivid contrast.

JEHOVAH In the Hebrew, YAHVEH  Yod Hey Vov Hey

Please Note: Some few of Dr.Bullinger's Appendices are in error;
in particular there is no (Scriptural) indication that Cain is Adam's Progeny

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